mscroggs.co.uk
mscroggs.co.uk

subscribe

Blog

 2017-02-25 
Recently, I've noticed a few great examples of misleading uses of numbers in news articles.
On 15 Feb, BBC News published a breaking news article with the headline "UK unemployment falls by 7,000 to 1.6m". This fall of 7,000 sounds big; but when compared to the total of 1.6m, it is insignificant. The change could more accurately be described as a fall from 1.6m to 1.6m.
But there is a greater problem with this figure. In the original Office of National Statistics (ONS) report, the fall of 7,000 was accompanied by a 95% confidence interval of ±80,000. When calculating figures about large populations (such as unemployment levels), it is impossible to ask every person in the UK whether they are employed or not. Instead, data is gathered from a sample and this is used to estimate the total number. The 95% confidence interval gives an idea of the accuracy of this estimation: 95% of the time, the true number will lie of the confidence interval. Therefore, we can think of the 95% confidence interval as being a range in which the figure lies (although this is not true, it is a helpful way to think about it).
Compared to the size of its confidence interval (±80,000), the fall of 7,000 is almost indistinguishable from zero. This means that it cannot be said with any confidence whether the unemployment level rose or fell. This is demonstrated in the following diagram.
A fall of 7,000 ± 80,000. The orange line shows no change.
To be fair to the BBC, the headline of the article changed to "UK wage growth outpaces inflation" once the article was upgraded from breaking news to a complete article, and a mention of the lack of confidence in the change was added.
On 23 Feb, I noticed another BBC News with misleading figures: Net migration to UK falls by 49,000. This 49,000 is the difference between 322,000 (net migration for the year ending 2015) and 273,000 (net migration for the year ending 2016). However both these figures are estimates: in the original ONS report, they were placed in 95% confidence intervals of ±37,000 and ±41,000 respectively. As can be seen in the diagram below, there is a significant portion where these intervals overlap, so it cannot be said with any confidence whether or not net immigration actually fell.
Net migration in 2014-15 and 2015-16.
Perhaps the blame for this questionable figure lies with the ONS, as it appeared prominently in their report while the discussion of its accuracy was fairly well hidden. Although I can't shift all blame from the journalists: they should really be investigating the quality of these figures, however well advertised their accuracy is.
Both articles criticised here appeared on BBC News. This is not due to the BBC being especially bad with figures, but simply due to the fact that I spend more time reading news on the BBC than in other places, so noticed these figures there. I quick Google search reveals that the unemployment figure was also reported, with little to no discussion of accuracy, by The Guardian, the Financial Times, and Sky News.

Similar posts

World Cup stickers 2018, pt. 3
World Cup stickers 2018, pt. 2
A bad Puzzle for Today
A 20,000-to-1 baby?

Comments

Comments in green were written by me. Comments in blue were not written by me.
I've seen archaeologists claiming proof that event A happened before event B because the radiocarbon date of A was 50 years before B. Except the standard error on both dates was 100 years. They even showed the error bars in their own graphics, but seemed to not understand what it meant.

My favorite species of ignoring the measurement error is the metric conversion taken to way too many decimal places. The hike was 50 miles (80.467 kilometers) long.
Perry Ramsey
                 Reply
 Add a Comment 


I will only use your email address to reply to your comment (if a reply is needed).

Allowed HTML tags: <br> <a> <small> <b> <i> <s> <sup> <sub> <u> <spoiler> <ul> <ol> <li>
To prove you are not a spam bot, please type "s" then "e" then "g" then "m" then "e" then "n" then "t" in the box below (case sensitive):

Archive

Show me a random blog post
 2020 

Jul 2020

Happy π+√3-4 Approximation Day!

May 2020

A surprising fact about quadrilaterals
Interesting tautologies

Mar 2020

Log-scaled axes

Feb 2020

PhD thesis, chapter ∞
PhD thesis, chapter 5
PhD thesis, chapter 4
PhD thesis, chapter 3
Inverting a matrix
PhD thesis, chapter 2

Jan 2020

PhD thesis, chapter 1
Gaussian elimination
Matrix multiplication
Christmas (2019) is over
 2019 
▼ show ▼
 2018 
▼ show ▼
 2017 
▼ show ▼
 2016 
▼ show ▼
 2015 
▼ show ▼
 2014 
▼ show ▼
 2013 
▼ show ▼
 2012 
▼ show ▼

Tags

probability rugby books signorini conditions sound radio 4 logic misleading statistics pi bubble bobble light puzzles mathslogicbot fractals determinants people maths bempp flexagons gerry anderson geometry platonic solids rhombicuboctahedron pi approximation day coins hats christmas data interpolation propositional calculus reddit matrix multiplication mathsjam cambridge london underground chebyshev convergence national lottery dates graphs harriss spiral speed latex royal institution approximation matrices games wave scattering london pac-man boundary element methods plastic ratio frobel inline code game show probability wool video games football golden ratio manchester ucl a gamut of games raspberry pi tennis craft matt parker news preconditioning triangles the aperiodical data visualisation go cross stitch game of life weak imposition ternary captain scarlet talking maths in public manchester science festival braiding twitter pizza cutting oeis asteroids graph theory estimation european cup golden spiral chalkdust magazine python nine men's morris logs matrix of cofactors martin gardner countdown javascript final fantasy noughts and crosses gaussian elimination reuleaux polygons statistics quadrilaterals sobolev spaces programming simultaneous equations exponential growth inverse matrices royal baby hannah fry folding paper finite element method numerical analysis advent calendar christmas card php mathsteroids machine learning arithmetic error bars folding tube maps polynomials pythagoras electromagnetic field map projections sorting chess binary palindromes big internet math-off hexapawn geogebra dataset phd realhats matrix of minors world cup sport computational complexity squares weather station bodmas menace accuracy draughts stickers curvature trigonometry dragon curves tmip

Archive

Show me a random blog post
▼ show ▼
© Matthew Scroggs 2012–2020