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Sunday Afternoon Maths LIV

 Posted on 2016-07-17 

Hat check

Three logicians, A, B and C, are wearing hats. Each has a strictly positive integer written on it. The number on one of the hats is the sum of the numbers on the other two.
The logicians say:
A: I don't know the number on my hat.
B: The number on my hat is 15.
Which numbers are on hats A and C?

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Tags: logic

Combining multiples

In each of these questions, positive integers should be taken to include 0.
1. What is the largest number that cannot be written in the form \(3a+5b\), where \(a\) and \(b\) are positive integers?
2. What is the largest number that cannot be written in the form \(3a+7b\), where \(a\) and \(b\) are positive integers?
3. What is the largest number that cannot be written in the form \(10a+11b\), where \(a\) and \(b\) are positive integers?
4. Given \(n\) and \(m\), what is the largest number that cannot be written in the form \(na+mb\), where \(a\) and \(b\) are positive integers?

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Cross diagonal cover problem

Draw with an \(m\times n\) rectangle, split into unit squares. Starting in the top left corner, move at 45° across the rectangle. When you reach the side, bounce off. Continue until you reach another corner of the rectangle:
How many squares will be coloured in when the process ends?

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If you enjoyed these puzzles, check out Sunday Afternoon Maths LXVII,
puzzles about cube numbers, or a random puzzle.

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